Net Zero Pathways
The global energy system is the largest emitter of CO2 in our modern industrial society, accounting for over ¾ of all emissions. As demand for more energy increases, as is projected by every international energy agency, emissions will continue to increase. This is not good for climate change.
The energy system can roughly be broken down into thirds, with one-third of emissions each attributable to the following energy sectors: electricity, primary manufacturing (or industry), and transport.
Electricity globally is about 70% to 80% powered by fossil fuels, with some help from hydro, nuclear, wind and solar, and geothermal in that order. Non-electric industrial heat is almost 100% powered by fossil fuels.
Transport is about 95% powered by fossil fuels, with a little bit of help from electric trains, buses and cars.
The transport and manufacturing industries are totally dependent on fossil fuels in order to function. There are no technological substitutes that are commercially available on the horizon.